After the Internet, sap r/3 is one of the hottest topics in the computer industry, and the company that developed it, SAP AG, has become one of the successful in the software market. The SAP R/3 system is targeted to most industries: manufacturing, retail, oil and gas, electricity, health care, pharmaceutical, banking, insurance, telecommunications, transport, automotive, chemical, and so on. All hard ware vendors, without exception, are fully engaged to partner with SAP: currently, AT&T, Bull, Compaq, Data General, Digital, Hewlett-Packard, IBM, Pyramid, Sequent, Siemens-Nixdorf, and SUN has supported and certified SAP R/3 platforms.
SAP AG was found in 1972 by four former IBM employees. Since its foundation, SAP has made significant development and marketing efforts on standard application software, being a global market player with its R/2 system for mainframe applications and its R/3 system for open client/server technologies.
The company name SAP stands for Systems, Applications and Products in Data Processing. It is a standard software package that can be configured in multiple areas and adapted to specific needs of the company. To support those needs, SAP includes large number of business functions, leaving room for further enhancements or adaptability to business practice changes.
ABAP/4 is the $GL (fourth-generation programming language) in which all R/3 applications (the upper layer) are developed. Middleware are the layered software components that facilitate the development of client/server applications that can be deployed … Read the rest
The amazing growth of the Internet and telecommunications is powered by ever-faster systems demanding increasingly higher levels of processor performance. To keep up with this demand we cannot rely entirely on traditional approaches to processor design. Microarchitecture techniques used to achieve past processor performance improvement–superpipelining, branch prediction, super-scalar execution, out-of-order execution, caches–have made microprocessors increasingly more complex, have more transistors, and consume more power. In fact, transistor counts and power are increasing at rates greater than processor performance. Processor architects are therefore looking for ways to improve performance at a greater rate than transistor counts and power dissipation. Intel’s Hyper-Threading Technology is one solution.
Traditional approaches to processor design have focused on higher clock speeds, instruction-level parallelism (ILP), and caches. Techniques to achieve higher clock speeds involve pipelining the microarchitecture to finer granularities, also called super-pipelining. Higher clock frequencies can greatly improve performance by increasing the number of instructions that can be executed each second. Because there will be far more instructions in-flight in a superpipelined microarchitecture, handling of events that disrupt the pipeline, e.g., cache misses, interrupts and branch mispredictions, can be costly.
ILP refers to techniques to increase the number of instructions executed each clock cycle. For example, a super-scalar processor has multiple parallel execution units that can process instructions simultaneously. With super-scalar execution, several instructions can be executed each clock cycle. However, with simple inorder … Read the rest
In each of the past five years, hard drive capacities have doubled, keeping storage costs low and allowing technophiles and PC users to sock away more data. However, storage buffs believed the rate of growth could continue for only so long, and many asserted that the storage industry was about to hit the physical limit for higher capacities. But according to IBM, a new innovation will push back that limit. The company is first to mass-produce computer hard disk drives using a revolutionary new type of magnetic coating that is eventually expected to quadruple the data density of current hard disk drive products — a level previously thought to be impossible, but crucial to continue feeding the information-hungry Internet economy. For consumers, increased data density will help hasten the transition in home entertainment from passive analog technologies to interactive digital formats.
The key to IBM’s new data storage breakthrough is a three-atom-thick layer of the element ruthenium, a precious metal similar to platinum, sandwiched between two magnetic layers. That only a few atoms could have such a dramatic impact caused some IBM scientists to refer to the ruthenium layer informally as “pixie dust”. Known technically as “antiferromagnetically-coupled (AFC) media,” the new multilayer coating is expected to permit hard disk drives to store 100 billion bits (gigabits) of data per square inch of disk area by 2003. Current hard drives can … Read the rest
During the 20th century and a half, the contest between codemakers and code breakers has undergone reversals and complications. An unbreakable cipher was invented in 1918, although its unbreakability was not proved until the 1940s. This cipher was rather impractical because it required the sender and receiver to agree beforehand on a key – a large stockpile of secret random digits, some of which were used up each time a secret message was transmitted. More practical ciphers with short, reusable keys, or no secret key at all, were developed in the 1970s, but to this day they remain in a mathematical limbo, having neither been broken nor proved secure. A recent unexpected development is the use of quantum mechanics to perform cryptographic feats unachievable by mathematics alone. Quantum cryptographic devices typically employ individual photons of light and take advantage of Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, according to which measuring a quantum system in general disturbs it and yields incomplete information about its state before the measurement. Eavesdropping on a quantum communications channel therefore causes an unavoidable disturbance, alerting the legitimate users. Quantum cryptography exploits this effect to allow two parties who have never met and who share no secret information beforehand to communicate in absolute secrecy under the nose of an adversary.
Introduction to Quantum Computer?
Behold your computer. Your computer represents the culmination of years of technological advancements beginning with the … Read the rest